- Global Careers
The program occasionally organizes an international conference on a topic related to conflict management. A series of lectures outside of courses and other various activities are held throughout the year.
An internship is highly recommended for Conflict Management students. A number of Washington, DC, agencies offer internships each year in the field of conflict management. Consult the program office for information.
The aim of the club is to promote academic discourse, peer collaboration and engagement, and career opportunities in the field of global security and conflict management. The CM Club will provide a platform for students to enhance their technical skills, network and socialize with peers, professionals, and alumni, and facilitate meetings or events with academics, policy makers, and potential employers in the field of conflict management. We look forward to working with you all this year. Check the club out at https://www.facebook.com/GSCMClub/
Conflict Management Program Goals and Objectives
Entering Class 2016-2017
MA students must take the equivalent of 16 non-language courses (64 credits) in order to graduate. Those students who are approved for dual degree or advanced standing may only need to take 12 courses (48 credits) or 14 courses (56 credits) as approved by Academic Affairs.
MA students concentrating in Conflict Management (CM) must take at least 4 courses within this program. Only one of the four required CM courses may be cross-listed, starting with a prefix other than SA.640.XXX. The course Principles and Practices of Conflict Management (SA.640.718) is strongly encouraged for all students in their first year of study who have not taken a similar course.
Students must also fulfill the general requirements for International Relations (IR) which include 2 additional courses within IR from two different IR or selected Policy areas other than CM. These areas include:
· Global Theory and History
· International Law and Organizations
· International Political Economy
· Energy, Resources and Environment
· Strategic Studies
IR students studying at SAIS Europe must take at least three IR courses in Washington with the exception of dual-degree or advanced-standing students, who need must take at least two IR courses in Washington.
Students must complete 4 courses within this program.
· Macroeconomics (prerequisite or concurrent Microeconomics)
· International Trade Theory (prerequisite Microeconomics)
· International Monetary Theory (prerequisite Macroeconomics)
Eligible students who pass the waiver exams in these subjects or who pass Micro in Pre-Term must replace those courses with alternate economics courses. Many students choose to pursue an International Economics Specialization in one of four areas of economics and therefore use electives to meet these requirements. Students may also choose to specialize in Emerging Markets.
Students must receive a 2.67 average in the 4 required economics courses or they must retake a course(s) until a 2.67 average is obtained. If any of the 4 courses are achieved by passing a waiver exam or during Pre-Term, the student must substitute an economics elective course(s) in place of the waived course(s) in order to fulfill the economics requirement above. In this case, the school will use the highest economics program elective course grade(s) to compute this average if a student is replacing one or more of the 4 required courses of Microeconomics, Macroeconomics, International Trade Theory or International Monetary Theory.
Students must complete one course from the list below.
· Statistical Methods for Business & Economics
· Econometrics (prerequisite Statistical Methods for Business & Economics)
· Applied Econometrics (prerequisite Econometrics)
· Macro Econometrics (prerequisite Econometrics)
· Risk Analysis and Modeling
· Quantitative Global Economics (prerequisite International Monetary Theory)
Students may not double-count a Quantitative Reasoning requirement as one of the four required International Economics courses and vice-versa. Eligible students who pass the statistics waiver exam or pass the statistics course in Pre-Term are still required to take an alternate Quantitative Reasoning course from the list above.
All students must pass 2 core exams and/or courses in addition to their concentration requirements. CM concentrators must pass Theories of International Relations as one of their core requirements prior to the start of their third semester. If the second core is not completed by the start of the final semester, a student must enroll in second core course.
· American Foreign Policy Since World War II
· Comparative Politics (old name Comparative National Systems)
· Evolution of the International Systems
· Theories of International Relations
MA candidates must pass exams to demonstrate proficiency in a second language. This language must be offered at the school. Students whose native language is not English may use English as their proficiency language. All non-native English speakers are required to pass an English placement exam upon entering, even if not using English for proficiency.
Conflict Management concentrators must produce a research paper of publishable quality completed during their final semester from previous work of one of the four Conflict Management courses required above. It must be approved in final form in order to take the MA Oral Exam to compete for honors (if eligible) and to graduate. A prize for the best program paper is awarded at graduation. This requirement is normally fulfilled by:
*For those whose final semester is fall, consult the Program Director for due date.
Conflict Management Minor Requirements: (as of AY 16/17)
General Conflict Management Requirements:
In all cases, the research paper must be approved in final form in order to graduate; candidates for honors must have their paper approved prior to scheduling their oral exam. A prize for the best program paper is awarded at graduation.
(CM students may choose ONE cross-listed course to count as one of their CM courses. Additional cross-listed courses will go toward students’ electives)
Fifteen students selected through an essay application process participate in a research trip to a designated conflict or post-conflict-region during the intersession. Students plan and coordinate the trip in close cooperation with Drs. Hopmann and Zartman. Background readings and weekly briefings with local experts take place during the fall semester. During the trip, students interview local government officials and representatives of the international community, NGOs, academia and the media in order to assess the role of the international community and prospects for progress in the region. Students select a specific area of focus and write a separate analysis and review of their findings to present in a final report at SAIS during the spring. Preference is given to second-year Conflict Management students, but students from all concentrations are encouraged to apply.
Continues Over Both Semesters - with fall Registration
Examines phases of conflict and techniques that may be introduced at various stages of conflict to halt escalation, minimize violence, and to move conflicts towards resolution. This includes an analysis of the prevention of violent conflicts, crisis management, negotiations to terminate violent conflict, the resolution and/or transformation of conflicts, and post conflict peace-building. Special emphasis will be placed on the role of third parties, such as international institutions, state governments, eminent persons, and NGOs in conflict management.
Examines bargaining and negotiations from the theoretical and policy perspectives in international diplomacy. Emphasizes the impact of the negotiation process on the outcomes of negotiations in both theory and practice, including the role of individual negotiators, domestic politics, cultural context, and the international environment. Considers ways in which negotiations may ameliorate conflicts of interest and identity in international politics. Numerous case studies and simulation exercises will be utilized. Limited to 25 students.
Examines hands-on tactics of dispute settlement and mediation on both the local and international scenes. Although relating to conceptual approaches to mediation and negotiation, focuses primarily on interpersonal aspects and the business of bringing people to an agreement. Also looks at ethical aspects of mediation and conflict resolution.
To enroll in this course, students must have taken one of two basic conflict management courses, either Principles and Practices of Conflict Management, or International Bargaining and Negotiation; or have the approval of the instructor. Limited to 18 students.
Is it true as recent headlines suggest that our fragile planet is on the loom of a grave water crisis, that our rivers are running dry and groundwater aquifers increasingly over-tapped and over-exploited, that wars will be fought between nations over this precious resource (more valuable than oil), and that this is likely to affect the development opportunities for a large share of the world population? Or is this looming crisis over-hyped, a matter of political will and proper pricing, and within the capacity of society to manage? Water is a classic renewable resource, essential to life on this planet. Water sustains the livelihoods of society and makes productive economic activity possible. For such an important resource, it is no wonder that issues surrounding its use (and abuse) can generate cause for so much passionate controversy and concern. This course is a broad survey of the international water issues facing the 21st century. Topics to be covered include, privatization of water service delivery, conflict and cooperation on trans-boundary rivers, the role of large multi-purpose reservoirs (for hydropower, water supply, irrigation), water as a human right, achieving the Millennium Development Goals on water supply and sanitation, the role of water in food security, and climate change. Any discourse today on sustainable development is not complete without a discussion of the important role of water to society.
Seminar within which students research and write their program paper, a publishable quality paper normally 30-40 pages in length, on a research topic selected in consultation with the course instructor; these papers may build upon papers submitted in prior courses, but they should entail considerable additional research and analysis. The seminar will provide a general introduction to issues of research design, focusing on the relationship between conflict management theory and empirical research regarding conflict prevention, management, resolution, and post-conflict peace-building. All students will make oral presentations about their research design to the seminar in order to receive early feedback from the instructor and fellow students. Drafts of the research paper must be submitted by the end of the first full week in April. Papers must be accepted and course requirements must be completed prior to graduation; candidates for honors must have their papers approved prior to scheduling the oral examination, normally no later than May 1, so almost finished drafts must be submitted by April 1 by all students planning to take the honors oral examination.
The course provides an in-depth study of the current state of the art of international mediation. The aim is to systematically approach the various uses, techniques, and problems of using mediation as a form of third party intervention to manage, resolve, or transform international conflicts. The course will offer an analysis of the history and development of international mediation as a distinct form of conflict management. The students will also get familiar with various factors that affect both the process and the outcome of international mediation. First of all, the course will cover a variety of contextual factors that condition any process of international mediation, such as the nature of the dispute (i.e. levels of intractability, degree of violence used, and issues at stake), disputants’ characteristics (i.e. power symmetries and asymmetries in conflict, strategies and tactics used in conflict, and capacities to rally international support) and mediators’ characteristics (i.e. perceived credibility, reputation, bias, interests and leverage which they may employ in the dispute). Secondly, the course will also provide an analysis of various behavioral factors (i.e. mediation strategies) that affect the process and outcome of international mediation. Finally, the students will also study the importance of specific types of agreements that are reached through mediation and their particular impact on both the short and long run. After completing the course the students will be able to better analyze and understand international conflicts and indicate how and why international mediation takes place.
Explores the basis of protest and revolt in Africa, in the context of developing societies. Considers formal and informal sources of protest, disengagement and resistance. Examines civil society and interest groups, social movements and dissident networks. Considers rural revolt, guerilla warfare and banditry. Discusses nationalist, insurgent and warlord rebellions. Looks at sources and resolution of conflicts. Limited to 20 students.
Since the end of the Cold War, the international community has grappled with the challenge of stabilizing and reconstructing failed states and war-torn societies, from Haiti to Afghanistan, Liberia to Iraq. The record of these efforts has been decidedly mixed. Yet the persistence of state failure, internal violence and human suffering means that the United States and its partners will face continual pressure to intervene in and assist the recovery of conflict prone-societies. This course seeks to provide students with a thorough understanding of the main assumptions, actors, challenges and dilemmas in contemporary “nation-building” (statebuilding) exercises in fragile, failed and post-war states. Drawing on the historical record since the fall of the Berlin Wall and more recent experiences, we will seek to clarify the nature of the tasks; identify the requirements for sustainable reconstruction and peace-building; examine the evolving roles and approaches of the United States, the United Nations, host governments and other key actors; analyze the determinants of success or failure in recent cases; and develop policy options for contemporary challenges. The course will include simulations, role plays and oral presentations as well as written papers. Several sessions early on in the semester will last for 3 hours to be able to include simulations. Limited to 18 students.
What is the role of the United Nations in maintaining minimum public order? Is it capable of effective action in crisis, and how should it work with other multilateral structures such as NATO and regional groups? The course looks at the crisis in Kosovo, the Dayton process in Bosnia and recent wars in Africa, as well as the work of the United Nations on weapons of mass destruction and human rights law. Discusses the current reform process, the competition for power between the General Assembly and Security Council and the role of the secretary-general and International Court of Justice. (This is a cross-listed course offered by the International Law and Organizations Program that also can fulfill a requirement for the Conflict Management and Strategic Studies programs.)
Nuclear energy can be used for peaceful purposes or for nuclear weapons. An international non-proliferation regime was established based on the 1968 Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The Treaty assigned responsibility International Atomic Energy Agency of the United Nations for applying safeguards to nuclear and related materials, nuclear equipment and facilities to ensure that they remain in peaceful use. New challenges arise from resurgent interest by some nations in acquiring nuclear weapons to meet their perceived security needs, and the recent revival of interest in nuclear power as a carbon-free energy source, including from developing countries that have no experience in nuclear technology. In addition, with the end of the Cold War there is a new threat of nuclear terrorism from acts of malice, diversion, sale, and theft of nuclear material and technologies. This course will explore how nuclear weapons work, why some countries are tempted to seek them, and the implications of nuclear weapons for civilian nuclear power and geopolitical stability. Students will gain an understanding of the political and military dynamics of nuclear weapons, ways to slow or halt the spread of such weapons and how to reduce the dangers of nuclear terrorism. Group discussions, simulated exercises, and guest lecturers will introduce additional real-world dimensions into the classroom.
Africa’s Great Lakes region has become synonymous with conflict. Over the last five decades, this region has seen genocides, ethnic violence, land disputes, civil war, cross border conflict and a multi-national war. Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo have been affected by one or many of these destabilizing factors. The course introduces students to the main issues affecting peace, stability and development in the Great Lakes.
Considers the importance of culture in the operationalization of modernity by assessing the role of religion, beliefs and identity in social behaviors. Challenges the rational assumption to emphasize the behavioral aspects of intercommunal and international relations. Draws from various disciplines (sociology, evolutionary psychology, social and political psychology) to examine identity-based conflict as well as the xenophobic responses to the emergence of a global, modern identity. Cases generally drawn from the Islamic world and its peripheries, but within a vast comparative reach. (This is a cross-listed course offered by the Middle East Studies Program that also can fulfill a requirement for the Global Theory and History Program.)
We are pleased to share with you the first issue of the Conflict Management Program Bulletin. We intend on sending our newsletter a couple of times a year to keep in touch with our alumni across the globe. If you would like to contribute, whether you wrote a book, published an article, spoke at a conference, or wish to be profiled, let us know. We also welcome suggestions for new features in our newsletter.
International Conflict Management is a dynamic, interdisciplinary field, constantly evolving as a response to problems in International Relations. Theoretically located between social and behavioral science, it is the point at which these perspectives meet and sometimes clash. Conflict management can be functionally understood by what it seeks to accomplish.
Conflict Management aims to:
The Conflict Management Toolkit identifies five devices or strategies of conflict management:
At different phases of a conflict the multiple strategies of conflict management respond to barriers in the process in different ways: Conflict Prevention is an approach that seeks to resolve disputes before violence breaks out; Peacemaking transforms the conflict from violent to spoken, and further, toward the definition of a common peaceful solution; Peacekeeping missions are often required to halt violence and preserve peace once it is obtained. If successful, those missions can strengthen the opportunity for post-conflict Peacebuilding, which should function to prevent the recurrence of violence by addressing the root causes of conflict and creating a stable and durable peace. Finally, Statebuilding is the process of reconstructing weak or collapsed infrastructure and institutions of a society - political, economic and civil - in order for civil society and politics to begin to function normally.
It may be difficult or even undesirable to come up with exact definitions of these concepts. Trying to define the tasks that go into each "strategy" would risk limiting rather than expanding the means by which conflicts can be managed. It is therefore useful to look at these concepts in terms of the goals and aims of those strategies, the targets of particular actions, and in terms of the specific problems that need to be addressed. Each strategy addresses specific problems that occur during the Conflict Process:
In an effort to merge theory and practice, the Conflict Management Toolkit approaches conflict and conflict management from three perspectives: Approaches, Issues in Practice, and Resources.
The aim of the theoretical analysis of conflict is to develop an understanding of the variables, processes, strategies, and techniques that interact to form the basis for Conflict Management. These enable us to analyze, understand, explain and predict conflict and the mechanisms that contribute to its solution. We organize conflict management into five overlapping and interrelated areas: Conflict Prevention, Peacekeeping, Peacemaking, Post-conflict Peacebuilding, and Statebuilding. Rather than providing a package of tools and strategies that have to be stretched in order to apply to a variety of conflict situations, the approaches presented here attempt to identify the challenges that Conflict Management faces in practice and ways to deal with them. Instead of playing one strategy off against another, the toolkit looks at how these approaches can interact through a focus on problems, target groups, actors, and tasks involved.
Issues In Practice
The Challenge for Conflict Management Theory is to study real problems in the real world rather than just ideal cases. In the Issues in Practice section a number of topics that confront theoreticians and practitioners on all levels of activity are introduced and analyzed in view of the theoretical approaches. Most of these issues are answers to problems that span across the entire field of Conflict Management, or crosscutting agendas that have to be dealt with in order for the theoretical approaches to truly tackle the reality of conflicts. It involves evaluating the effectiveness of Conflict management as well as its readiness to deal with new problems and new issues, such as terrorism.
The resources section provides a guide to different organizations and practitioners working in the field of Conflict Management in its link section and it offers information about similar conflict management initiatives. The practitioners are usually mediators, negotiators, diplomats, facilitators, relief workers, or even the conflicting parties themselves. The tasks range from negotiating cease-fires to providing social and psychological healing to those who have been most affected by the violence. The "organizations" involved these activities can be sovereign states, agencies, international organizations, diplomats or other actors that support, organize and fund those working in the field. They provide training, legitimization, knowledge, resources, early warning and experience. This section also includes syllabi from several different conflict management courses, both at Johns Hopkins SAIS and elsewhere, and links to a multitude of journals focusing on conflict management-related issues. It also offers a list of useful links to the websites of NGOs, government agencies, donor organizations, media outlets, and research institutions that work in conflicts worldwide. A glossary and historiography explain common conflict management terms and their theoretical evolution. The section offers a look into "Peacekidz," a Johns Hopkins SAIS project to adapt international conflict management to everyday life - a team of students research and design a conflict resolution program for middle school children and teaches it weekly at Francis C. Hammond Middle School in Alexandria, Virginia.
As new concepts emerge and agendas expand, we need ways with which to classify and understand new information. The Conflict Management Toolkit attempts to arrange the concepts and terms of Conflict Management into meaningful theoretical and practical categories. These categories then become more comprehensible and useful for students, practitioners and academics. We hope that this highlights both the importance, as well as the interdependence of both theory and practice to conflict management. In the words of the Swedish negotiator to the Kyoto Protocol, Bo Kjellen: "I only knew negotiations through my practical experience and started to read the theory only towards the end of my career. I think it would have helped me a lot had I known the theory earlier." (World Bank Seminar on International Waters, 27 February 2002).
CMToolkit is the work of the Conflict Management Program of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies and is made available to the Alliance for Peacebuilding (AfP) and its members as part of the Program’s participation in AfP. All materials in the Toolkit may be used with appropriates attribution.
Reactions and suggestions (and appreciations) are welcome. All correspondence should be addressed to CMToolkit@jhu.edu.